THE introduction of the Decision Review System (DRS) into cricket was a controversial one at first.
Purists believed that the umpire's decision should always be final, but it has now been in operation for nearly a decade and continues to help sides combat human error and question potentially match-defining moments.
How many DRS reviews does a team get?
The DRS system is in place for a team to challenge the decision of an umpire if they believe it to be wrong.
Before the technology was introduced, the umpire's on-field decision was final.
In Test cricket, each team has TWO reviews per innings.
In ODI cricket and T20 cricket, each team has ONE review per innings.
When a team challenges and wins a review, they retain it and can challenge another decision later in that innings.
Similarly, if the fielding team asks for an LBW and it is returned as 'Umpires Call', then they also retain their review.
If they challenge and the original decision turns out to be correct, they lose their review.
This is in place to stop teams from reviewing at will and slowing down the game.
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When is DRS used?
Either the batting or fielding side can choose to review a decision they believe to be incorrect.
If the fielding side believes that a player is out caught or LBW and the umpire hasn't given the batsman out, they may choose to review the decision.
They have 15 seconds after the umpire says not out to decide if they want to send it upstairs.
If the fielding side doesn't manage to decide in that time, they can no longer review the decision.
A batsman may use his team's review in a similar circumstance, but instead, if he has been given out and believes that isn't the case.
This most often happens on caught-behind and LBW shouts, where the batsman knows he hasn't hit the ball or believes it has struck him outside the line of the stumps.
DRS will use technology such as stump microphones and HawkEye ball-tracking to determine if the umpires' decision was the correct one.
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What is Umpire's Call?
When challenging an LBW decision you can be unsuccessful but retain your review if the outcome is umpire's call.
The official ICC rules states:
'Umpire’s Call is the concept within the DRS under which the on-field decision of the bowler’s end umpire shall stand, which shall apply under the specific circumstances set out in paragraphs 3.4.5 and 3.4.6 of Appendix D, where the ball-tracking technology indicates a marginal decision in respect of either the Impact Zone or the Wicket Zone.'
When an LBW decision is referred and there is no edge ball tracking is used to determine whether a batter should be given out.
The ball-tracker indicates the point where the ball pitches on the surface, the impact when the batter plays the ball, and the point when it is going to hit the stumps.
For a player to be given out, the ball must pitch in line or outside the off stump (when a shot is offered), must have an impact in line with and the ball must clearly be hitting the wickets.
You can retain your review if the ball is hitting the stump but only marginally and therefore the decision stays not out but it has been deemed to be a good review.
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